History of Rodeo

Rodeo, Calf Roping, Arena, Competition

Williamson County Wildlife Removal can be a very exciting event for a family or a group of people to go and watch. It captures the imagination and nostalgia of the cowboy era in American history and helps people reconnect with the past. The rodeo’s background is interesting and full of small contests that pitted cowboy crews against each other in different ways.
The beginning of these competitions began in the 1700’s with the Spaniards and their ranch hands known as vaqueros. These ranches were spread out over what is currently, the American southwest, when Spain owned the land. There were several events where the ranch hands could compete. A number of these events are still in competition today, such as roping various farm animals, riding horses and bulls, tie down roping, team roping, and bronco riding. The early rodeos also had events like horse breaking, which could become very dangerous if one wasn’t careful, herding, which turned into a bigger competition since the ways of the cowboy became more popular, and branding the critters. In the 1800’s, cattle drives were a massive part of cowboy life, with trails like the Chism, the Goodnight-Loving, and the Santa Fe were all ways to get the cattle from the southwestern areas of the United States to the eastern areas of america. At the end of the paths, the cowboys who needed to blow off the stress of the drive often held competitions between crews to find out who was the best. This would eventually become an entertainment form for people of the frontier cities, such as Prescott, Arizona or Cheyenne, Wyoming. They used lots of the events mentioned previously, which gave birth to the modern rodeos of now.
The modern rodeo is governed by the rules and regulations put forth by IGRA. Its rule book can be found on the internet and covers every aspect of rodeo life from institution requirements to professional behaviour in the stadium and other places where the rodeo is being held. One of the chief concerns with the animals is how the rodeo hands get the animals to buck so much. This happens because the animals are made to wear a flank strap that binds the testicles. The 8 second rule was established for the safety of the animals, mainly because the creature gets exhausted and the adrenaline stops flowing just as much. It also helps keep the animal wild and unbroken, so that it can perform in different rodeos.
The safety of the cowboy is almost secondary to the protection of the animals. Horrible injuries and death occur annually from trampling or by being thrown into the fence that separates the crowd from the arena. If that is the game for you, ensure you have the correct training and some sort of protection for your upper chest and stomach area. This is the area where accidents occur the most.

Hot Jupiters

Space, Saturn, Science Fiction

Hot Jupiter exoplanets are enormous gas-giant worlds akin to our own Solar System’s Jupiter. Unlike our Jupiter, however, hot Jupiters do not live in the cooler outer regions of the planetary systems, but instead hug their searing-hot, fiery, glaring parent stars fast and close in”roasting” orbits. In September 2014, a team of planet-hunting astronomers announced their discovery of yet another bizarre alien planetary system, where a fascinating duo of Jupiter-sized exoplanets are observed–each orbiting a different leading twin of a binary-star system.

Most the known exoplanets circle solitary stars, like our own lonely Sun. However, many stars are members of binary systems–twin stars which were born from the same natal cloud of dust and gas. Now, for the first time, two twin stars composing a binary system are seen to host a sexy Jupiter exoplanet.

The bizarre discoveries, circling the stellar sisters WASP-94A and WASP-94B, were created by a group of British, Belgian, and Swiss astronomers.

A new survey, called the WASP-South survey, led by astronomers from Keele University in Staffordshire, UK, found small dips in the light emanating from WASP-94A, suggesting that a planet like Jupiter was passing before (transiting) the fiery, brilliant surface of its own parent-star. Swiss astronomers then demonstrated the existence of planets circling both WASP-94A and then its twin stellar sister WASP-94B. Dr. Marion Neveu-VanMalle of Geneva University in Switzerland, who wrote the statement paper, commented at a September 30, 2014 University of Keele Press Release that”We noticed that the other star by accident, and then found a world around that one too!”

Hot Jupiters hug their stellar parents carefully, circling them in hellish orbits–using a”year” lasting just a couple of days. However, hot Jupiters are in fact rare denizens of the planetary zoo–thus making it extremely improbable that two hot Jupiters would be spotted by chance, inhabiting the same stellar system. Perhaps WASP-94 is unique, and just happens to have the right conditions for giving birth to these rare hot Jupiter exoplanets? If this turns out to be true, WASP-94 could be a very important system for understanding why hot Jupiters somehow can circle their stellar parents in such rapid, close, and”roasting” orbits.

The presence of those enormous, gaseous Jupiter-like exoplanets, orbiting so close to their stars, has presented a long-standing mystery. This is because gas-giant planets cannot be born hugging their parent-stars–it is much too hot there for them to form.

The very first exoplanet to be found orbiting a main-sequence (hydrogen burning) Sun-like star proved to be a hot Jupiter. This discovery shocked planet-hunting astronomers who did not think that such close-in, giant, gaseous worlds could exist. This mystery has plagued the planetary science community for the last twenty years.

An exoplanet is an alien world that doesn’t orbit our Solar System’s Sun, but instead circles a remote, distinct star, stellar remnant, or brown dwarf (failed star). As of September 29, 2014, over 1800 exoplanets have been discovered –with 1822 planets residing in 1137 planetary systems, including 467 multiple planetary systems. Moreover, you will find free-floating”orphan” planets which are not gravitationally bound to any star in any way, but float through interstellar space, tragically bereft of their companionship of a leading parent or planetary siblings of their own. After, these sad planetary”orphans” were part of a system, but they were likely cruelly evicted from the gravitational bullying of sister planets which hurled them in the cold, dark space between stars.

The highly effective Kepler Space Telescope has spotted a few thousand potential exoplanets, of which about 11% may turn out to be false-positives. Planetary scientists estimate that there are likely, at the very least, one planet on average per star dwelling within our starlit, spiral Milky Way Galaxy. Maybe 1 in 5 stars like our own Sun game an”Earth-sized” world in the habitable zone. The habitable zone surrounding a celebrity is that comfy”Goldilocks” region where the temperatures are”just right” for water to exist in its own life-sustaining liquid phase. Where liquid Bat Poop exists, life as we know it can also potentially exist.

Despite the fact that the discovery of so many alien worlds is becoming almost commonplace–“business as usual” for planet-hunting astronomers–this hasn’t always been the case. In actuality, the search for planets beyond our own Solar System historically been shown to be a rather frustrating, difficult, and long pursuit. Finally, back in 1992, the very first batch of bizarre exoplanets were successfully spotted in orbit around a compact, small, wildly spinning stellar relic known as a pulsar. Dr. Alexander Wolszczan of Pennsylvania State University, after carefully analyzing radio emissions coming from a compact millisecond pulsar, called PSR B1257+12, decided that it had been circled by several very bizarre planets. A pulsar is a small oddball of about 12 miles, therefore, in diameter. It is actually the collapsed core of what was once a massive main-sequence star that, after having burnt its mandatory supply of hydrogen gas, blew itself to smithereens from the fiery anger of a supernova blast.

The historical discovery was made by Dr. Michel Mayor and Dr. Didier Queloz of Switzerland’s Geneva Observatory.

This hot-Jupiter planet, that clung closely to its searing-hot parent star, was the first of its baffling kind to bewilder astronomers. However, the existing theories of planet formation with that era indicated that giant Jupiter-like planets could only be born at substantially greater distances from their stars.

51 Peg b proved to be just the tip of the iceberg–it was the first discovery of an entirely new and unforeseen category of exoplanets. Ever since the discovery of 51 Peg b twenty years ago, many other hot Jupiters have been discovered by planet-hunting astronomers in search of distant worlds beyond our own Sun’s family.

New theories were invented to explain hot Jupiters. Some astronomers thought that these”roasters” were essentially huge molten rocks; while others suggested that they were gas-giant planets that were actually born 100 times further away from their stars–and were taken back towards their parent-star as a result of near-collisions with other sister planets, or maybe even a companion star of their own stellar parent.

One theory suggests that hot Jupiters are born at a distance like Jupiter’s average distance from our Sun, and then gradually eliminate energy as a result of interactions with the disc of gas and dust (protoplanetary accretion disc ) where they had formed. The newborn giant planet, therefore, spirals to the warm inner areas of its own planetary system from its more distant birthplace.

Hot Jupiters may be tragedies in the making, doomed to crash into a fiery death inside the raging furnaces of the seething-hot parent-stars. Until that time, however, these unfortunate”roasters” orbit their stars fast and close, in their hell-like orbits.

Hot Jupiter planets must be born much further out in their systems, where the temperatures are sufficiently cold for ices to freeze from the protoplanetary disk swirling around the young star–thus forming a brand new baby planet. Something must then occur that moves the planet into a close-in,”roasting” orbit, and one possible mechanism is an interaction with another sister planet or star. Spotting hot Jupiter planets circling around two sister celebrities composing a binary pair may permit astronomers to examine the still-mysterious processes that move the hot Jupiters inward.

Dr. Coel Hellier, of Keele University, noted in the September 30, 2014 Keele University Press Release which”WASP-94 could become one of the most important discoveries from WASP-South. The 2 stars are relatively bright, which makes it easy to study their planets, so WASP-94 could be used to discover the compositions of the atmospheres of the exoplanets.”

The WASP poll is the most successful search for sexy Jupiter exoplanets which transit–or float in front of–the glaring face of the parent-stars. The WASP-South survey instrument searches the skies every clear night, scanning literally thousands and thousands of sparkling stars for transits. The Belgian team is responsible for picking the best WASP candidates by obtaining high-quality data of transit lightcurves.

Neptune

Neptune, Planet, Solar System

Neptune is the eighth planet in our Solar System. It is positioned between Uranus and Pluto, and is sometimes referred to as the Blue Giant. The planet is nearly 49,500 kilometers in diameter, making it almost 4 times the size of the planet, Earth. Also, Neptune is located around 4.4 billion kilometers from Earth, and therefore, it is not visible to naked eyes. Even using binoculars, you won’t have the ability to observe the planet clearly.

Here are some fascinating facts about Neptune:

• Neptune was observed by several astronomers from early times. Even the great Galileo observed Neptune, but did not realize that he was looking at a world. In ancient times, the telescopes weren’t potent enough to help the researchers and astronomers discern Raccoon Removal Near Me. So when Neptune was seen, the astronomers couldn’t find the disc shape of Earth.

• The planet was detected through mathematical calculations. In the year 1843, a mathematician and astronomer from Britain was instrumental in calculating where Neptune was located. In accordance with the calculations, it was estimated that Neptune was one billion miles further from Sun compared to Uranus.

• Another French astronomer was interested in Neptune and was calculating its position. He also has the same results as the British astronomer.

• The discovery of Neptune is credited to the British astronomer in addition to the French astronomer.

• The core of the planet consists of iron, nickel and other silicates. While the mantle of Neptune is made up of water, methane, ammonia and other chemical compounds. The mantle of Earth is
very hot with temperature ranging from 3000 K to 5000 K.

• The atmosphere of Neptune is made up of 80 percent hydrogen, 19 percent helium, and one percent of ammonia, water and methane.

• The world gets its characteristic blue colour because methane within its atmosphere absorbs the red light from the sun and then reflects it as blue into space.

• Until today, researchers and astronomers have discovered thirteen moons revolving around Neptune. It’s quite possible that there are still more moons waiting to be found.

• Voyager 2 was the first spaceship to reach Neptune from the year 1989. It took pictures of the world and through these images, researchers discovered that the planet has five rings. These rings are known as Galle, LeVerrier, Lassell, Arago and Adams. It’s thought that the rings formed when one of planet’s moons got too close and broke up into countless particles as a result of Neptune’s gravity.

Europa

Alien Planet, Jupiter, Ocean, Stars

Europa is the sixth moon of Jupiter and has been discovered by Galileo in 1610. It’s extremely possible that at that moment, life has been swimming around in the subsurface ocean Europa almost certainly contains. For those 400 years, it’s entirely possible that extraterrestrial life has been around, but we just have not known it. This is as intriguing a reason as any to go there right now.

The surface of Europa is the smoothest in the complete Solar System, which supports the concept that there’s a water ocean beneath it. There are not many craters but one of note is that the Pwyll crater, whose bright white look again implies the presence of water beneath the surface. When it comes nearer to Jupiter the gravitational pull is raised, which slightly moves the world out, and once it goes farther away in its own orbit, Europa returns to its spherical form. Additionally it is an exceptional example of gravitational energy turning to kinetic energy, which then becomes heat energy.

There have been lots of probes that have visited Mars in the hope of locating present or past life. It’s quite unlikely to harbor any sorts of life now, although its odds of getting played host to germs in the past is still quite good. However, there’s nothing as persuasive as a liquid water ocean to maintain extraterrestrial life in the present moment. As you read this guide, weird and amazing creatures could be swimming across the deathly cold seas of Europa, or parked around some hydrothermal vent (as we see in the ocean depths on our own planet Earth). It’s because of this that we must visit Europa, not over twenty, not over ten, but when possible. A robotic probe could be transmitted within five decades.

A robotic probe would need to carry substantial power on board, maybe by atomic fission. It would need to melt through the good ice crust that’s at least ten kilometres thick, and then release a probe that could swim through the cold oceans and transmit information back to earth.

Unfortunately, a plan known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter was shelved five decades back, and funding cuts have noticed a string of false starts at the search for life on Europa. If we are to discover extraterrestrial life anytime soon, this needs to change.

Venus

Venus, Surface, Hot, Heat, Planet

The planet Venus is closest neighbor of Earth. It took the title from the Greek God called Venus and was also known as Evening Star. The planet Venus could be seen after sunset and before sunrise. It’s the only planet that orbits .

Venus is named Shukra in the early Hindu astrology. It had been observed from the Babylonians in the ancient 1600BC and was known as world Ishtar, the goddess of love and womanhood.

Venus was called the wandering star long before the invention of telescope. Phythagoras was the first to discover from the 6th century that the entire world was one. He believed that Venus orbited around Earth. Galileo noticed in 17th century that Venus had traits such as the moon.

A Russian genius called Mikhail Lomonosov had discovered the atmosphere of Venus in 1761. Chester Smith Lyman was the first to detect the ring around dark side of Earth. The atmosphere of Venus is quite dense which causes difficulty for scientists who wanted to understand its rotation period.

Venus has some traits that are similar with Earth. Venus contains silicon stones present on its surface like Earth. The size and make up is very similar to Earth. Moreover, Venus and Earth has the identical core that’s composed of compact iron residue and the middle of Venus is quite similar to that of Earth. However, its atmosphere is extremely compact for hosting life. Venus is full of sulfuric acid clouds and the acute heat dries up all types of water. Its surface is far hotter than Mercury’s. Vast majority of Venus surface attributes are inspired from girls.

There have been a variety of space probe missions to Venus. The first one was that the Russian Venera 1. The first successful spacecraft that came near Venus was America’s Mariner 2 in 1962.

What is an Extrasolar Planet

Alien Planet, Exoplanet, Ocean, Exomoon

An extrasolar planet is one which isn’t in our Solar system. According to The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, at the 19th of June 2009, 353 extrasolar plants were discovered.

All of the planets so far confirmed happen to be orbiting round celebrities. Planets not orbiting stars do exist, but discovering them is difficult although at least three possibilities are found.

These are sometimes known as free floating planets. (This upper mass limit is to differentiate them from brown dwarf stars, and is about the mass below that sustained nuclear fusion occurs.) I would also put a lower limit of mass on what we’d think about a Planet.

Naturally, nearly all of the planets so far discovered are much larger than the Earth. This is because larger things are easier to find, and doesn’t imply that Earth sized planets are rare. The array of sizes of extrasolar planets found suggests that there’ll be a lot of Earth sized planets out there.

In 1992, a potential world (Earth: PSR 1257+12 b) was detected which is just somewhat more than a fifth of the mass of the planet, so we can expect increasing numbers of small planets to be discovered.

Habitable Zone

For all of us, or similar creatures, to live on a world it generally must be orbiting a star in the fairly narrow place where water could be liquid at least portion of the planet, at least portion of the time. A planet also should be large enough to hold a sensible atmosphere.

A world also should not be too large, although there’s been lots of speculation about what type of life could live on gas giants.

Although no Earth sized planets have been found in the habitable zones of different celebrities, about 30 larger planets have.

Earth Sized Planets

Maybe we ought to consider what sized world we can live on. One as little as Mars, if it had sufficient water and was the ideal distance from it celebrity would do, although this is close to the lower limit.

A planet much larger than the Earth might have a tendency to have an uncomfortably significant gravity. But if it had been of lower density which our Earth, it would have a larger diameter and its surface gravity wouldn’t be quite as high. It’s likely that humans may live on some planets with a larger mass than the Earth in addition to a larger surface area for living on.

Habitable Moons

Based of the limited information we have, we can anticipate that many planets will have moons, and that these are of a enormous array of sizes.

The 30 so large planets in the habitable zones of the celebrities might have Earth sized moons. There’s nothing impossible about a really major planet, like lots of the ones found up to now, having more than one Earth sized moon.

There could be an additional type of habitable moon. If a significant planet was orbiting farther out than the habitable zone of its star, tidal forces could heat its moons sufficient to melt water. This warming effect is clear from the moons of Jupiter.

No definite signs of life have been discovered on any extrasolar planet, but at present our techniques for observing them aren’t good enough to inform. These techniques are rapidly advancing.

We still don’t know if extraterrestrial life exists.

Mars and The Blue Moon

Mars, Red Planet, Planet, Starry Sky

Even though the Mars resistance occurs once every twenty-six weeks, it may nevertheless be considered once in a lifetime event should you take under account the final time that a Mars opposition happened on exactly the same night as a blue moon. Planetary resistance is an occurrence that happens once the planet rises as the sun sets. This typically happens when the Earth is directly between the sun and the planet, causing the world to follow the exact same elliptical path as sunlight. Add the moon will be full twice in the month of January, called a blue moon, then there’s a lot to get excited about. What is the reason behind all the excitement?

Most astronomers took the chance to just observe the passing of the happening, while watchmaker David Gill, in 1877, used the opportunity to use precise measurement apparatus and calculations to figure out the solar parallax by simply observing Mars. This was an remarkable astronomic breakthrough since it was responsible for redefining the calculations for finding the distance from the earth to the sun. The parallax has just been upgraded with more precise calculations, but using the exact same formula that brought David Gill to his conclusion.

With the most recent resistance in sight, the eminent return of Mars has prompted much ado. This, however, isn’t the start of the event, which can be set to last almost a week and is marked with the nearest the red planet has been to Earth since August of 2003. Mars is really closest to the ground on the 27th of January, and it is going to slowly ascend up as the days progress. If you’re wanting to catch a glimpse of this gorgeous red surface of the planet in its absolute closest. Brave the chilly, or enjoy the balmy summer night in case your in the southern hemisphere on the 27th and get your telescope into focus. This is going to be the best night for optimum viewing of the red planet, since it will gradually diminish in size from the subsequent weeks. Don’t delay or you’ll need to wait another twenty-six weeks for the March of 2012 opposition. However, the next time that the opposition of Mars will happen on the same night as a blue moon is dependent upon the cycle of the upcoming blue moon.

Not only does the resistance and Blue Moon happen on the same night, Taylor Wildlife Removal is only a hand (7 degrees of arc) from the Moon. It’s critical, then, to record the events of the night to say that you’re there. Maybe even some Pictures to mark the event. For the second time this happens, you children or grandchildren are the ones to watch it.

Do We Return to The Moon

Space Station, Moon Landing, Apollo 15

Now, 30 years later, the question presents itself:”Should we return to the moon?”

The answers to this question are varied, and individuals on all sides are very enthusiastic about how they feel. Some assert that exploration is one of the most basic fundamentals about what makes people great. Without mining and treading into new waters, progress can’t be made. Others argue for the scientific discoveries that can be made while others assert that we have already been there and should set our sites on other things like Mars.

However, it’s not a”been there, done that” situation. There are still unanswered questions which could be answered if we return to the moon, which is much more. We don’t even know for sure how the moon was created. It can help us discover the real story behind the creation of not only the Earth and moon, but also of our own solar system.

Who Should Go?

If a return mission to the moon become a manned mission? Or if a robot be used instead? Manned missions take immense risk at the expense of human life, while unmanned robots come at a huge cost of money.

Funding

However, the dilemma of cost arises. Those in favor of a return to the moon assert that the costs of going back to the moon are far less than the costs of perhaps going to Mars. Yet, in such a down market and the government spending at an all time high on other applications, an individual must wonder and wonder if spending money on missions to the moon is in the best interest of the nation. Some argue that using the present poverty and environmental issues currently plaguing the world, we will need to focus on things here, not beyond the realm of the earth.

Perhaps if there’s a return to the moon, it won’t be done by a government sponsored program or with government funding. Private enterprises could take a major role in returning to the moon.

The overall national mentality is also another factor to take into account. When John F. Kennedy made his speech in the early 1960s, the United States was in a very different place in it’s national mentality than it is today. The early 60s brought a euphoria from a booming economy and the ending of the Korean War and World War II. There was a sense that so much was possible, and individuals put their sights on distant horizons. However, in the present day, the market is struggling, and we’re obsessed with all the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Conclusion

The topic of returning to the Moon is a complex one. There are many questions which need to be asked in order for us to begin to talk if returning to the Moon is feasible. With the close of the Space Shuttle Program and cuts in funding for NASA, it is going to be interesting to see what the future holds for space travel.

Any reproductions of this article must retain the following:

This article was written by Elena Athanasiou.

Should we go back to the moon? What benefits do you see from going back to the moon? Do you find any drawbacks?

Mercury

Mercury, Planet, Color Enhanced, Space

In our tour of the solar system, we should start by exploring the innermost planet. A brief distance from the inferno of the sun we find it, hurtling through space at 40 to 60 km per second in its 88 day cycle around the sun. It also is heavily cratered, with no air (or just a hint of one) to secure its surface or erode indications of previous collisions. The sun as seen from this distance is approximately twice as big as from Earth, and we know this will be the most dominant force affecting our trip for this planet.
Now we’ve touched down and we have a fast look around. Looking up in the sky we see a black, star-speckled skies dominated by the fiery world of sunlight almost 3 times bigger than we are knowledgeable about. There’s only the faintest hint of an air, and the only way we know it’s there’s the instrumentation we have with us. It’ll be completely useless to us. If we had been on the night side the temperature would fall to -270 degrees. We would never live here without space suits.

Bending down to inspect the surface we find a layer of dust like what astronauts found on the moon. This is the result of centuries of meteor impacts, as well as the extreme temperature differentials implemented from a hellishly near sun. The procedures which shaped this world across the eons were substantially different than those that shaped our home world.

Around us are the pockmarks of craters, some mountain ranges, and a horizon considerably closer than that which we know at home.

Unlike what astronomers once thought, there’s truly a cycle of times here, but it’s much different than anything we’re accustomed to. Mercury isn’t tidally locked with sunlight, but tidal forces have slowed it to the point where its day is 58 of our times (really it will one day many years from now become locked one facet to its enormous neighbor). This results in some rather peculiar observations when we were to stay that long. In certain areas on this world we would then see the sun slow and really backtrack a brief distance before continuing its slow march across the sky.

We take one more look around the globe. No, Mercury isn’t an enticing place for people to go to. Maybe one day we’ll have reason to be here, possibly for the rich deposits of iron and other metals or for observational purposes, but this isn’t the day.

Mercury has been know and observed at least since the days of the Sumerians from the 3rd century BC. After the Sumerians there’s better documentation in the Babylonian Empire. Records in the 7th century BC refer back to much earlier documents which described observations of Earth. The Babylonians called the world Nebu, after the messenger of the gods in their mythology. This is a fascinating parallel to the Greek mythology and reference to the innermost planet. The ancient Greeks had two names for the entire world, Apollo observable in the morning and Hermes observable in the evening. They finally came to understand that these were exactly the identical object, and it was even suggested that this early in history that Mercury and Venus orbited the sun.
Early modern astronomy started making observations of Mercury from the early 17th century when Galileo turned into an early telescope into the inner world. A sketchy vision of this planet developed from there, but its proximity to the sun has always made this one of the most troublesome members of our solar system to study. It has only been lately with the arrival of new imaging methods that ground-based monitoring has drastically improved.
And what of study with space probes? This is also laced with technical issues. An application of Newton’s Laws of Motion demonstrates that it requires more rocket fuel to reach an orbit around Mercury than necessary to escape the solar system. Due to this just one spacecraft has visited the world thus far, the Mariner 10. After its analysis of Venus, the probe made three flybys of Mercury in 1974 and 1975 as it mapped about 45 percent of the world’s surface. The Mariner 10 circles the sun in its lone orbit round the sun to this day, although its digital devices have long since been destroyed by the sun’s intense radiation.
Our toughest Mercury research project to date was started August 3,2004 with the launch of the Messenger by NASA from Cape Canaveral. It’s carrying high resolution imaging apparatus, spectrometers to ascertain the composition of the crust, and magnetometers to study charged particles around Earth. After every couple of centuries there’s an occultation of Mercury and Venus. This happens when Venus really passes directly in front of Mercury for a couple of minutes. The last one occurred on May 28,1737 and another will occur in 2133.

Much of Mercury’s mass consists of an iron rich core. Recent theories indicate that this core comprises the majority of the 4879 mile diameter of Earth. Due to Mercury’s slow rotation period, there’s hardly any tectonic or volcanic action.
There have been a number of theories introduced to explain why Mercury is so metal rich, and why its core features such a massive area of the world’s structure. One popular theory is that the world was struck by a huge body early in its history and dropped most of its outer,”lighter”, mantle. Another theory is that the intense heat of the ancient sun vaporized the outer portion of Earth, providing the young Mercury a dense atmosphere of gaseous stone, which was carried away by the massive solar winds of a far more volatile sun. The competing theories to explain the unusually heavy makeup of Mercury will be analyzed by the approaching Messenger mission.
The Future of Mercury and Its Potential Role in Their Future
Mercury’s most dominant feature makes it an attractive part of our future: its enormous stores of heavy metals, particularly iron. Though its proximity to the sun makes it tough to envision humans living and working there, I could envision automated factories mining its own surface and freighters picking up the ore to bring it back for our use.
Mercury will stay pretty much as it’s for centuries to come. As the sun slowly increases in intensity during the next 4 to 5 billion years, the planet’s surface temperature will gradually rise with it. Then a singular moment will arrive as the whole solar system varies with the start of the sun’s passing into its next stage. After the sun consumes a vital amount of its hydrogen gas it will, within a matter of only a couple days, enter its red giant stage.
At the point Mercury will be the first of the inner planets to be completely absorbed.

The Solar System

Solar System, Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth

The solar system includes the sun, the closest star to us, and the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, in addition to numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and the interplanetary medium. The nine planets, together with their satellites, revolve round the sun in certain orbits.

It’s thought that the sun, the center-piece of the solar system, has been born five billion years back, emitting light and heat non-stop, and it’s expected to do this for another five billion years. The sun is the richest repository of electromagnetic energy, in the form of light and heat. The sun contains 99.85 percent of all of the matter in the solar system. The planets, which were condensed from the same disk of material that formed the sun, comprise just 0.135 percent of the mass of the solar system.

All of them have compact, rugged surfaces such as the Earth’s. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are known as the Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets due to their colossal sizes.

By quantity, nearly all of the solar system seems to be an empty void. But, this”vacuum of space” encircles the interplanetary medium containing a variety of kinds of energy, dust, and gas. The stream of gas and charged particles known as plasma, mostly protons and electrons, is called the solar wind. Its rate is about 250 miles (400 km ) per second in the neighborhood of the planet’s orbit.

The entire solar system, along with the stars visible on a clear night, orbits the center of our home galaxy known as the Milky Way, which is a spiral disk of 200 billion stars.

Tiger Woods

Tiger Woods, Golfer, Athlete

Tiger’s identity is tied to increasing the BAR. The what?

How can you compete at the Masters as soon as your identity has been shattered?

Sure Tiger has won 4 Pros Tournaments, and he might actually win his 5th this weekend… we will see. However, his personal life is affected. His identity was revealed. The results that we have been visiting since last Thanksgiving with Tiger is really a excellent index of his beliefs.

So that means that what we’re seeing in Tiger’s life recently was really due to beliefs he adopted some time ago. For any reason Tiger’s beliefs had him thinking that he was untouchable as it came into extramarital affairs, and maybe taking illegal growth hormone chemicals (that is still speculation).

The thrill of doubt, and the importance factor Tiger obtained from these girls were powerful enough to change his belief system to it is okay to do exactly what he was doing. That rush became addicting to himand he kept seeking it out. Who knows what the true number of women he had affairs with – which does not really matter. What does matter is that his beliefs, and his individuality have been shown for the world to see. So what’s next?

From the Dream Bar Cafe system we say that all outcomes are lagging indicators of some-thing else.

That is why we put heavy emphasis on increasing your own BAR (Belief, Action, Result) cycle. Change one variable and you will see a outcome. Change a few factors, and you will see exponential results.

Just how can Tiger get back to adjusting his beliefs? Only by stepping up and moving through the complete DREAM BAR CAFE system will he know what Drives himand what his motives are for doing what he has been doing – showing his identity.

Do you think he had been thinking about them when he let his beliefs denigrate into the level they were at before this all came out? His identity as a Playboy became so powerful that nothing else mattered – as it came into the thrill of the chase. Please don’t misunderstand me… I feel that Tiger loves his loved ones, his wife Elin, his two children, his Mother, his Faith in Buddhism, and his aggressive golfing career. I’m positive of this truth.

What occurred was that Tiger gradually chipped away at his belief system that his parents instilled in him from a young age. He began discovering that his life has to be mixed up, and have a little uncertainty thrown in. He allowed his beliefs to slide, which resulted in taking risky activities, and so the outcomes which became evident.

Will his match be effected during this weeks Masters Tournament? Probably not. He still has those superb competitive beliefs that he’s the worlds greatest golfer – which shouldn’t have changed. This week is also feeding his other individual needs of certainty, doubt, love & value. So I do not think you will need to worry about him… he’ll do just fine. This is Tiger’s week to shine in the spotlight and get his individual needs fulfilled and his tank full.

Whether you like Tiger or dislike him does not matter. Now you can see where and how Tiger’s individuality went astray – by knowing your thoughts and feelings have an immediate influence on your results. Now you can use this in your own life to make the results that you select.

There’s one caveat to look out for with Tiger, and on your life. It is possible to alter an action and get a different result – for a while… however, if you don’t change your view, your identity will certainly kick-in and you’re going to snap right back to exactly the same person you were before. That is because you can never exceed what your identity will allow.

Interesting is not it? Give it some thought on your life… and increase your BAR.

P.S.. Who will make the coveted Green Jacket? I’d say it is the individual with the strongest belief in themselves, and the player who knows, and implements the Dream Bar Cafe system finest.

Of Tigers and T-34s

Tank, Old, T-34, Victory, Soviet, Tank

The German forces were bogged down by the Russian winter, the Russian victory at Stalingrad and the following spring rain and mud. In the summer of 1943 that the Germans had amassed a massive force to attack Russia and recover lost ground. This could lead to the biggest tank battle in history and also lends a dynamic background to this publication.

There are 4 major characters that drive this story. The next 3 are from the exact Russian Cossack family. Dimitri Berko, a personal driving the T-34 from the Soviet 3rd Mechanized Division. He’s controlled by Sergeant Valentin Berko, Dimitri’s son, and Katya Berkovna, Dimitri’s daughter, a night bomber with the famed all-female bomber squadrons of the Red Air Force, so the Night Witches from the Germans that they bomb. The 3 primary narrative lines follow Vega being assigned to escort the new super panzer of the German Army, the Tiger 1 Panzerkampfwagen VI, through train to the front and ensure that the Tigers are delivered undamaged. He then begins itching for action to control one of the Tiger tanks in the Battle of Kursk. He soon realizes how the Tiger is most successful in battle. With Demitri and boy Valentin at precisely the identical T-34 there’s a lot of the father/son tension together with the tank battles that ensue. The author keeps all things separate into what sounds like 3 distinct stories revolving around the build up to the tank battle at Kursk. Each character has there own well detailed back stories which are fleshed out through memories, flashbacks and boastful story telling through the lulls in fighting.

The best aspect of the book is that the historical accuracy and detail of the Tiger tank and the Battle of Kursk. This book was very near being non-fiction in the degree of detail, but also very engrossing character growth. He’d spent weeks on the battlefields of Kursk in the midst of summer getting a sense of the warmth and sun of the Russian steppes. He also trained in how to derail a train with explosives as the Partisan Russian fighters tried in stopping the shipment of the Tiger tanks in the narrative. Time was also spent pouring over video reports from Russian and German tankers’ first hand combat accounts. “Hands on” gear training was given to him ranging from small arms into the tanks in the Aberdeen Ordinance Museum in Maryland and then being pushed around in a restored T-34 at Virginia. David L Robbins certainly did his homework for this book and you’ll feel it when you read it. This is a must read for any Tiger 1 fan and any WW2 fan generally.

Playing Football in The Heat

Football, Field, Football Games, Sports

From the 1995 City to Surf fun run, Australia’s premiere foot race, a 14 kilometer trek through Hyde Park in Central Sydney into the Pacific Ocean, a 19-year-old guy suffered a cardiac arrest to the finishing line and later died. 600 people were treated for minor issues and 200 were treated by physiotherapists.
“The people who get into trouble are the highly motivated amateurs who train at the cool of the day and are not ready for competition”

Dr. Rowley Richards

It surely doesn’t require a doctor to point out the pains of physical activity in extreme heat. I’m sure, at some point in time each and every one of us has over-exerted ourselves in the warmth, even if this means a frantic sprint to the evaporating ice cream truck. In actuality, it’s no secret that soccer players are the best conditioned athletes in the world — because they must be. Consider running for 60 minutes in an open air arena on the equator, or the deserts of northern Africa. Even better, try it with full helmet and pads at a pre-season NFL experience in Phoenix, Arizona in August. It’s no wonder that the Arizona Cardinals get three of the first four matches of each season on the road.

After this simple human reality, it would follow football, as in marathons or any other athletic event, that better conditioned athletes will fare better in extreme heat than diminished conditioned athletes. While oddsmakers take several factors into consideration when determining pointspreads, it’s reasonable to say that better teams are better, at least in part, due to superior physical conditioning.

The most successful training camp at the 1998 season, (our evaluation season), concerning attendance and commitment from the players, was the Denver Broncos. Fresh off their 1997 Superbowl win, where physical conditioning was the deciding factor in the pit, as Denver’s lightweight but well conditioned O-Line simply dominated Green Bay’s big but relatively out-of-shape D-Line, the Broncos went back into the key well that had given them the extra edge when it mattered most, and it paid off again.

We’re not surprised when a stronger and better conditioned athlete dominates in the ring, or in a foot race, so why should we be surprised when greater softball soccer players win on the soccer field, particularly when the elements demand a superior work. In actuality, that’s precisely the reality in the modern NFL, as league parity reduces the gap in talent, it’s intangibles, like physical conditioning, which give some teams an edge on a few days.

In actuality, of both up fav losses, one was Carolina dropping as a house favorite to Atlanta in week 1, but bear in mind, the Falcons went on to play at the Super Bowl that year. Another event, was a 13-7 loss, Tennessee their Nashville debut at Vanderbilt Stadium in week two against The Chargers, which appears to be the only true exception to the rule.

What’s more, the hotter it got, the more widespread the phenomenon became. There were six games in 1998 in which the temperature hit as large as 90 degrees at game time. They were;

Now, there are amazing similarities between all six of the above hotties, besides they hit 90 degrees or greater at match time. Most assuredly, all six matches saw the favorite manage the heat a lot better than the lesser team of the day and win handily over the underdog. The favorites had a 6-0 ATS mark over the underdogs once the heat was on. In actuality, the underdogs in those 6 matches had difficulties catching more than simply their breath, as none of the underdogs in one of these games enrolled over 16 points. In actuality, combined, the underdogs in those 6 competitions scored just 57 points, or, 9.5 per game average. The favorites in those 6 matches could benefit from fatigued defenses, as the favorites combined for a whopping 161 points in those 6 games, compared to only 57 allowed.

Another interesting property of warmth is its debilitating effects with time. This is a really intriguing question, and one, which could unlock the door to untold opportunities. Consider the outcomes of the next graph, which is a breakdown of scoring by quarter by both the favorite, underdog and cumulative scoring at the six sexy games combined.

Quarter . 1st 2nd . 1st Half . 3rd 4th . Total .

Favorite . 30 41 . 71 .

Underdog . 3 7 . 10 . 21 26 . 57 .

TOTAL . 33 48 . 81 . 55 82 . 218 .

I don’t have to tell you the startling implications of the above graph, and what it might mean to half-time lines and totals. But should we be surprised? I guess it really is not rocket science to conclude that a hot game could have a predictable impact on both teams defenses as the match wore on, but sometimes we can’t see the forest for the trees. The favorite has been dominate a sexy game from cable to cable, but even the superior defense starts to weaken as the match progresses, and points become more plentiful.

It’s also not surprising that things are tough to find in these matches, as groups prefer to pound the line and wear down the defense in favor of sending their receivers on deep jaunts. Under the Total played in 67 percent of our 90 level higher or games, which was consistent with hot games overall, as Under the Total was the outcome in 67 percent of games where the game time temperature was 86 degrees or higher.

Does The Cold Handicap You

Christmas, Snow, Winter, Christmas Time

Ever wonder why your fingers, feet, ears and other extremities get especially chilly in frigid weather?

The body adjusts to extremely cold weather by correcting the flow of blood. Crucial organs, like the liver and heart, get more blood that’s redirected away from the extremities, like the hands, feet and ears. Blood vessels in the extremities constrict, almost shutting off, leaving the skin at higher risk of frostbite.

That is the medical definition, but anybody who’s ever laced on skates in an outdoor rink, hit the slopes, or perhaps participated in a friendly snowball fight can tell you your motor abilities decrease in frigid weather. Throwing a football with numb fingers isn’t only catchy, but it can be debilitating. In actuality, playing any position with numb fingers increases the odds of”finger jams”, which is only when tingling stops you from squeezing the ball the way you normally would and increases the possibility of an accident on impact with the ball or an opposing player. It’s only one of the numerous tiny inconveniences of playing in cold weather. Everything constricts in chilly weather, for example, pigskin, leaving the ball using an entirely different sense – throwing a chilly football is completely different than throwing a warm soccer with an expanded hide.

Playing in the cold is perfected through practice, so teams who are made to practice in the cold are always going to perform better in that circumstance. Pay close attention in cold weather games into the quarterback, and his expertise in the circumstance. Teams that practice at the cold mostly include Green Bay, Chicago, Denver, The Giants, Jets, Eagles, Steelers, Bills, Ravens, Patriots, Browns, Bengals, Redskins and to a lesser degree – The Chiefs and Titans. Players who exercise in chilly weather changes year to year; Brett Farvre is among the all time best – in almost any weather.

There were 10 regular season games in 1998 (our evaluation season) in which the game time temperature was recorded at less than 40 degrees.

Week 16 – Baltimore @ Chicago – 36 levels

Week 16 – Tennessee @ Green Bay – 29 levels – snow

Week 17 – Minnesota @ Tennessee – 35 levels

Week 17 – NY Giants @ Philadelphia – 37 levels

Do you understand what the 10 coldest matches of this year have in common, aside from the fact that they were the 10 coldest games of this year? In each of the 10 games, the preferred won the match, usually by a landslide. In actuality, the favorite had an ATS mark of 8-2 in the 10 coldest games of this year.

Not only did the favorites from these cold wars win the match, like their hot air cousins, the favorites dominated. In actuality, of all of the underdogs in those 10 competitions, only two did the underdog score over 16 points, Kansas City in their 35-31 loss to Denver, and Tennessee in their 30-22 loss at Green Bay. In the other eight matches, the underdogs scored only 72 points combined, or, nine points per game normally. The favorites scored 263 points combined, for greater than 26 ppg typically. Again, below the TOTAL dominated the sportsbooks in those matches, as the Under performed to a song of 7-2-1 in those 10 games.

It is interesting to note that the NFL was pretty fair in the scheduling of the cold wars, as just San Diego & Tampa Bay were asked to go”out of their element” with respect to playing in cold weather. San Diego was wasted in Denver, managing only 10 points, but Tampa Bay shocked many in a 35-0 rout of the Bengals in Synergy Field in 39 degree weather.

To put it differently, it certainly appears that favorites in a cold weather game are preferred for good reason. Check out Lakewood Park Rat Removal for more details

Indian Artillery

Antietam, Maryland, Cannon, Battlefield

The Sikh Army was the strongest force faced by the British in India. The Khalsa Fauj acquitted itself creditably in both Anglo Sikh wars. British historians have alluded to the ability of the Sikh gunners during the conflicts at Mudki and Chillianwala throughout both Anglo Sikh wars. The maharaja who dominated the Punjab for 40 years until his death in 1839 assembled the artillery of the Khalsa Fauj (Army) to an unparalleled efficacy level. No Indian ruler could match the genius of Ranjit who built up his artillery with the support of foreign advisors -largely French. The period from 1801 to 1839 marked the maturation of the Sikh army from a semi feudal and cluttered force to an efficient fighting machine which could hold its own against the greatest European armies.

Out of these Court set about organizing the artillery. He joined the Maharajas service in 1827 and married a regional Sikh girl. He began the practice of the gunners and made the organization of the batteries and guns.In reality he raised the degree of efficiency of the Khalsa army at par with the western powers.The foundries of Maharaja Ranjit Singh were accommodated by Court to generate high quality guns and howitzers. In this he was assisted by local gun smith Sardar Lahina Singh Majithia.

It’s worthwhile to bear in mind that if the first shell was created at the Lahore foundry that the Maharaja bestowed a prize of Rs 30,000 on Court. Subsequently fuses for the firearms were manufactured there. His impact on the Artillery efficacy bore fruit later as during the wars with the British, Sikh guns made the British pay a hefty price by their deadly salvos.

The Sikh artillery came into its own only after the entrance of the European advisers of Ranjit Singh. This artillery was to differentiate itself in the conflicts of the North West frontier and afterwards the British.The most deadly part of the Sikh army were the firearms made at the maharajas foundries in Lahore. These firearms added teeth to the khalsa (Sikh) army which makes it into a powerful force. Ranjit Singh had about 35 artillery pieces when he began his reign in 1801. But by the time of this first Anglo-Sikh warfare in 1845 that the Sikhs could marshal almost 250 firearms.

Ranjit Singh must take credit for the evolution of the artillery in his military. Right from 1807 he had been seized with the thought of producing his own cannons. In another 2 years mortars were created and Ranjit instructed his chief scientist Mian Qadir Bakhsh a Muslim, to examine the British guns and create similar copies. Ranjit also on the help of his French generals prepare the horse drawn artillery. By 1830 Ranjit could have a look at his gunnery division and love the fact he had over 100 horse drawn artillery pieces.

The Sikh shortly mounted an invasion of the North West. In conflicts with the Pathans and the Afghans from the Frontier area the Sikh Army made significant use of Artillery. The Battle of Jamrud and capture of the fort was on no account possible without the unerring aim of the Sikh gunners.
When Maharaja died in 1839 he left behind a powerful military force equipped with specialist artillery. But the Sikh leadership dedicated hara-kiri by attacking the British whom Ranjit had a treaty of peace. The Sikh army aided by the artillery could have carried the day but bad generalship and a desire to allow the British triumph from the traitorous Sikh Prime Minister Gulab Singh and his coterie resulted in the defeat of the Sikhs.

A good deal of guns were seized by the British and were paraded at Calcutta after the second Sikh war. Many were melted down in their foundry in Cossipore. But with the passage of time only a couple of artillery pieces can be found mostly in the united kingdom and the Lahore Museum.

Remember Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor, Ship, Warship, Destroyed

Each year a growing number of people forget Pearl Harbor, and there are fewer statements in the news about it. Within another decade very few will still be alive, who were there to remind us and their recollections won’t be quite as good anyway. Most likely, it is going to be us who reminds them of the fateful day and what exactly happened.

We must not allow our history perish and we should not forget the perils of warfare or the day in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It’s up to every one of us to remember and read up on this December 7, 1941 and we shouldn’t let that memory perish. It’s essential that we make sure that it’s taught in schools, since it’s paramount that we protect all we are and all we have assembled from potential future dangers.

Each year a growing number of people forget about Pearl Harbor and quite honestly, that is unacceptable and it’s a spit in the face of our ancestors who built this wonderful nation. We can’t allow that to occur. It’s each and everyone’s duty to read up on this, know your background and pass this information down.

Have a conversation with your loved ones about this December 7th and discuss how different the world is and the way it’s also much the same. Consider It.

Find out More about Pearl Harbor Day:

D-Day

Panzer, Memorial, France, Normandy

“We will have peace of mind, even if we must fight for it”- General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

General George S. Patton (just prior to the Normandy Invasion) June 5th 1944

In the summertime in 1944, Hitler’s Wehrmacht (armed forces) nevertheless were very much in control of each the lands the Germans had fought and won throughout their Blitzkrieg campaign of 1941- 1943. The majority of the whole regionl of Europe was still in the stranglehold of Hitler’s clutches, and the allies were in a desperate place to somehow loosen his grip on Europe by any means necessary. A year earlier that summer of 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was commissioned by Franklin Roosevelt to think of a grand military strategy to invade the European stronghold that the German military were holding loyal to. The first proposal for the invasion was called”Operation Roundup”, then changed to”Operation Sledgehammer” a couple of months later. The invasion has been put on hold until May of 1944 through the insistence of Joseph Stalin and FDR from the protestations of Winston Churchill who desired to proceed with Eisenhower’s strategy in August of 1943. The turning point that eventually changed Churchill’s head was the arrangement that Stalin would assist the allies by mounting an offensive against Hitler in eastern Europe in exactly the exact same time that the US Army and Marines invaded Normandy, which might help deliver a mortal two prong attack against Germany’s army.

On June 1st of 1944, the brand new campaign title for the invasion of Normandy has been changed for the last time. Operation Lake Mary Rat Removal. Was the new title for what could eventually become the largest sea borne invasion the world had ever seen, with over 3 million allied troops taking action against the Germans and over 6900 sea boats bringing the allied troops into the sandy beach at Normandy. In the late hours of June 5th, massive air strikes and bombardments began waking up all the sleeping French citizens and German troops stationed near Omaha Beach. A French woman who lived in a chateau overlooking the beach gives us a very descriptive firsthand account of what occurred that evening. “We are deafened by the planes, making a never-ending round, very low; of course what I believed were German planes are quite simply English ones, protecting the landing. Coming from the sea, a compact artificial cloud; its menacing and starts to become alarming; the first hiss over our minds.

A complete two-thirds of the first bombardments were dropped out the actual invasion region to convince the German army the sea landings could be created in the neighborhood of the Seine, as opposed to at Omaha Beach. Due to decoded messages which the allies could obtain from a cadre of American spies, the US Army knew where the Germans would attempt any counterattack steps against the invasion. During that very same night of June 5th, 822 aircraft carrying countless parachuted military personnel began dropping off the soldiers for their designated landing zones near Normandy. The American 82nd and 101st airborne divisions did the best possible job possible and secured their objectives of carrying out German machine gun turrets and blowing 75 military tanks and vehicles behind enemy lines.

The full-scale invasion started in earnest at 6:30 AM on June 6th, when the more than 11,000 ships and ships came near shore and the greater than 80000 troops began swarming from their landing vehicles to start the fiery attack on the German forces awaiting reign down machine gun fire on the American soldiers. The Germans were lurking in their hiding places from the embankments from the rocky mountains of Normandy overlooking the shore. Since the troops waded ashore at Omaha beach, the Germans let loose with Hell’s fury, cutting almost two-thirds of the courageous soldiers that were first to arrive. The 352nd branch of the German army struck the US 1st division with complete wrath, taking the lives of over 2,000 American GI’s. The American effort was in trouble in this horrible stage of the invasion, and the US army intelligence required to think of a counter plan shortly, or the whole mission will be in shambles.

If Hitler had started to unleash his own armored division of Panzer tanks against the allies for a complete counter assault on that dreadful morning of June 6th, Operation Overload would really have been a complete failure. However, because Hitler was reluctant to take a bet and dispatch the hundreds of tanks and other army armored vehicles to carry out the allied forces, he waited too late to make the most of their allies misfortunes on Omaha beach. By the time that it took HItler to finally begin sending his Panzer division into Normandy, the American army had established a new strategy of attack employing the British forces to invade the region of the most powerful German stronghold in Périers-sur-le-Dan near the primary battle lines supporting the Normandy shore front.

The French girl that had witnessed the initial air strikes against the Germans, also observed the British tanks rolling in from the southeast to assault the German Panzer division at Périers-sur-le-Dan. She clarifies the English invasion and the British soldiers in particular with terrific clarity. “The English tanks are silhouetted from time to time on the street above Periers. Grand impassioned exchanges on the street with the folks from the farm; we’re stupefied by the suddenness of events. I inform him that he should still have comrades in the guns, because we could still listen to the battery firing. You feel that both of these guys are lost, disorientated, gloomy. Afterwards, nearly night, I see them , their faces intentionally blackened with charcoal, crossing the playground. What is going to be their fate? How many of them are still in the region, hiding and watching?”

The British antitank gunners took out the biggest German tank divisions, which led to paralyzing any counter attack the Germans could instigate against the allies. By the night of June 6th, leading to the early morning hours of June 7th, the allies were enjoying a military victory that demonstrated they were ready to conquer the Germans back to their homeland and return Europe for its allies.

During the constant battles which were taking place between June 8th and June 13th. The allies had destroyed nearly 1500 German aircraft and armored tanks and taken over 7500 German lives. But on June 13th,in a little village area named Villers-Bocage, the British infantry division lost over 40 British tanks and endured 200 casualties against a well-equipped German tank division. A large scale infantry offensive west of Caen, known as Operation Epsom, was also defeated on June 25-29, which cast a massive shadow of uncertainty on the final success of Operation Overlord. The only expect the allies had at the time was that the largest German military leaders had begun to fall prey to a sudden collection of deaths between suicides and bombing attempts on several members of their high command.

The complete disarray of German’s military leadership resulted in huge errors in Germany’s counterattacks against American troops in Saint-Lô, where 1500 American soldiers laid waste to Hitler’s tank and anti-aircraft branches. The American forces could surround and attack all of the German soldiers and armored vehicles, thus laying ground for the supreme allied strategy that would ultimately force the Germans to return to their homeland.

From the last remaining days of July, the majority of the German’s tank divisions were made to head westward from the British tank strategy called Operation Goodwood. The allied forces used the absence of German tanks to start up a massive wound in the German’s entire military offensive. Operation Cobra as it was called, would open up a devastating air attack on the front of the German military on the afternoon hours of July 25th. A enormous American spearhead now threatened to push into Brittany and, by a left turn, to encircle the Germans in Normandy in the rear.

That effort cause the last retreat of the Germans, and the American troops would cross the Seine River and finally liberate Paris during the month of August. The classic”Battle of the Bulge” are the last great battle of WWII, causing the Germans to surrender to the Allies in 1945.

The Normandy invasion was the primary plan of attack against the German war machine that indicated that the last end to Hitler’s domination of Europe. Without the bravery and courage of each the military branches of the allied forces, Hitler’s devastation of the planet could have continued for many more years, and taken countless lives in the procedure.

“I’ve returned several times to honor the valiant men who perished. . .every guy who set foot on Omaha Beach was a fanatic.” Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, Commander of the US First Army in the Normandy Invasion

Bismark and German Unification

Statue, Monument, Sculpture, Art, Figure

The French Emperor, Napoleon III, feared that a strong Prussia would upset the balance of power in Europe. Bismarck, at the exact same time, sought war with France; he believed that if the German nations perceived France as the aggressor, they would unite behind the King of Prussia.

A appropriate premise for war arose in 1870, when the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was offered the Spanish throne, which had been vacant since a revolution in 1868.

The publication was meant to provoke France into declaring war on Prussia. France mobilized and declared war, but was viewed as the aggressor; as a consequence, German states, swept up by nationalism and patriotic zeal, rallied to Prussia’s side and supplied troops.

The Franco-Prussian War in 1870 was a terrific success for Prussia. The German army, controlled by Moltke, won victory after victory. The French were defeated in every battle. The rest of the war featured quite cautious German operations and massive confusion on the part of the French.

In the end, France was forced to pay a huge indemnity and concede Alsace and part of Lorraine. Though Bismarck opposed the annexation, asserting it would be the”Achilles’ Heel” of this new empire, Moltke and his generals insisted that it was needed to keep France in a defensive position. He broke France’s supremacy over continental Europe following the Franco-Prussian war.

Poinciana Wildlife Removal carefully built the outside safety of the new German Country upon his skillful diplomacy, which circulated France globally and made a vast and intricate system of alliances for mutual military support with the majority of Europe’s states.

In the use of an’honest broker’, Bismarck was also effective in preserving peace and stability in Europe by settling French political conflicts through negotiations. Basically a careful politician, Bismarck never chased an imperialistic course in Europe. In Africa however, Bismarck followed for a time a policy of imperial conquest, in a way similar to the other European powers.

His most important tool in politics was his ability in the successful preparation of complex international developments.

Bismarck decided to act immediately to secure the unification of Germany after his victory over France. He opened negotiations with representatives of European states, offering special concessions if they would agree to unification. The negotiations were successful; King Wilhelm was crowned”German Emperor” on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Chateau de Versailles for the additional humiliation of France.

The Su-27

Airplane, Jet, Fighter, Flanker, Airshow

Many countries in the world are turning to the Russian made Su27 from the current period as the fighter aircraft of choice for their military aviation. No, not even close, but realize that indeed it’s accessible to all countries as Russia doesn’t discriminate to hostile or rogue countries in their arms deals; you have the money, they got the airplanes and they’re building more. So, why is everybody buying these aircraft and what is it that makes it so good anyway?

Well the story of this SU-27 is similar to many of the fighters produced by Russia’s top aeronautical scientists from 1968 to 1975;

There have been several modifications and refinements and now it’s truly not a player anymore. The Su-27 was much in reaction to the F-15 and it was competing with the Mig 29 Fulcrum in Russia at that time also.

Interestingly enough in the long run the US won’t have pilots in their aircraft and with morphing wings, 18″G” UAVs and speed of light transmissions, goal identification and hypersonic speeds the conflicts will be over before they start. Greater range and Artificial Intelligence, laser shooting, the match will be over for a piloted aircraft interceptor.

That’s essentially the reality and really it’s only physics, simple things really, that’s where the US is at in tech? It’s Not like the old days outside making the Germans better technology with 10’s of thousands of B-17s, B-24s, P-51s, or the Japanese light weight maneuverable Zero’s made of plywood or Kate Torpedo Bombers with Hellcats, Corsairs, SBDs and Avengers.

You will need to select a lot better technology if you wish to be taken seriously. Like the SU-33 which China is purchasing 50 of. As as Venezuela talks of purchasing Mig 29s, that isn’t actually a threat to the USA.

Now bear in mind that Russian Lt. Gen. Igor Khvorov, the commander of Russian long-lived aviation spanned over the North Pole undetected to prove it’s something to sell China apart from only the Russian Su-33. A recent exercise included 70 Tu-160, Tu-95 and Tu-22M3 bombers, which test-fired 18 cruise missiles and a few of those bombers crossed the Arctic Ocean and flew over the North Pole and reached Alaska, while others crossed the Aleutian Islands and Japan’s western shore without entering any nation’s airspace. If you wish to frighten people, you want to use different aircraft and much more plausible scenarios, Still Overall, USA is a good deal better than you think with micro-tethered satellites and getting into the kill zone of a battle group or US controlled airspace? Well you’re really going to need to work on it or you’re toast you see? Perhaps of interest in thinking about the Su-27 and Russian military aircraft available to the highest bidder in 2007.

The F-14

Air Show, Military, F-14, Tomcat, Jet

The United States Navy has Officially retired the Grumman F-14 Tomcat. I found that while watching a TV news station in Los Angeles. The service took place at Miramar which is located close to San Diego. Many Americans equate the F14 into the film,”Top Gun”. When you mention to someone you spent a long time in the Navy working on F14’s, they generally say something about the film. It is always interesting to speak to somebody who does not know this up close and personal. I never flew the plane, but I understood how keep it fight ready for the fleet. At that moment, the USS Forrestal was at sea in the Mediterranean, so this required a trip to the boat while at sea. Thus, when I overhear someone talking about the F-14 Tomcat in Naval Aviation, I take some private understanding.

My initial experience with the aircraft was in 1977. At the moment, I was a 19 year old sailor from St. Louis and I’d just seen a few still pictures of it in magazines before my arrival at NAS Miramar, California. The F-14’s were replacing the old Navy F-4 Phantoms in 1977 and the Tomcats seemed to be something from a science fiction book. At the moment, I’d tribulations on figuring out how to master its sophistication. My specialization was at the AN/AWG-9 Radar that was the most effective airborne radar mounted into a supersonic fighter. The radar was exceptional in its main function to shoot down little low flying high speed cruise missiles skimming the ocean surface and also MIG 25’s flying at MACH 3 up at 80,000 feet. After spending nearly two years in Navy technical colleges, I was deemed worthy to work on the intricate F-14 radar system. At the moment, the aircraft proved to be a truly revolutionary upgrade to Naval Aviation. Even to this day, a number of its unique capabilities are still unmatched.

He spent years as an aggressor pilot instructing pilots dog fighting abilities. Being the sole Navy man in the household, I get a great deal of ribbing when I talk of this F-14 as being the true top gun. When they say the F15 and F16 are better in close in combat, I say it depends upon the pilot as much as the machine. But more importantly, if your job is to take off and destroy an enemy aircraft, you are not going to fight a good fight. You are going to use whatever benefit you need to kill him before he kills you.

The F-14 can out gun others by using its superior radar, so the Navy has eyes on goal first. The F-14 could detect an aerial treat at much longer range than any other aerial fighter. The F-14D Tomcat could also fly at supersonic speed without light up it is afterburner for supersonic cruise. And the Navy can take using their long range AIM-54 Phoenix missiles. The USAF currently utilizes the new AIM-120 AMRAAM missile that’s an outstanding air to air missile, but it’s less than half the assortment of the AIM-54. This implies the Navy fighter pilot can take his missiles at longer range and still succeed. When the missile gets within close reach of the goal, it uses its active onboard radar to maneuver to final effects. Throughout live firing missile exercises, the kill rate of this AIM-54 exceeded 90 percent that’s outstanding. The AIM-120 uses this exact same idea and this technology has been carried over from our experience with the AIM-54. The F-14 Tomcat is the only fighter to use the extended range AIM-54.

The sole AIM-54 ever used in battle was by the IAF (Iranian Air Force) which bought 100 F-14 Tomcats from the mid 70’s. Iranian airspace has been violated by large flying MIG 25’s flying at Mach 3. Because of this, Iran chose the F-14 Tomcat to safeguard their airspace. After their F-14 aircraft downed an unmanned high rate Russian Dot aircraft, the flights over from Russia stopped. Throughout the Iraq / Iran war, they effectively utilized their AIM-54 missiles to destroy their opposing force. Unofficial kills with their limited number of missiles go as large as 40. We’ll probably never know the specific amount, but Iran continues to fly their Tomcats.

It is among the most realistic combat simulations anywhere on earth. Air Forces all over the world come to such exercises to hone their battle skills. On a single deployment, I was told that the navy F-14 crews weren’t permitted to use their aerial radar beyond the battle area because this could give them an edge. Typically, 1 F-14 would sweep a section of the sky to search for enemy targets. This aircraft could share its information with other patrolling F-14’s without turning on their radars. This discrete information sharing will keep the enemy guessing as to their true location. This tactic wouldn’t give away their location as it was not required to turn on their unique radars.

As far as one on one battle involving fighter USAF and USN pilots, I can not speak for them. He said first you should have excellent eyesight since the very first to detect another at long range has the advantage in battle. However, he also said that he was a fantastic pilot since he had a good deal of flying experience. I deployed to the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise in 1977 and spent the next four decades and three months ahead. The 1 thing that really amazed me was how aircraft could land at night on a slick flight deck which was pitching up and down and from side to side. I am not saying Navy pilots are better, but they’re quite experienced and good at what they do. If I had a few MIG fighters inbound with hostile intent, I’d feel really comfortable understanding among our F-14’s was patrolling over the horizon. I took a photo of an F-14 cockpit that had five red stars painting onto it from squadron VF-2. I slept at ease on the boat knowing we’d experienced crews protecting our aircraft carrier at sea.

The majority of the tomcats were confined to remain over water close to the carriers for air cover. When the Iraqi Air Force chose to fly all their remaining fighters to Iran, the coalition Air Forces had nothing in place that could shoot them down. Because of this, the Iranian Air Force currently has an additional 50 to 100 fighters. Iran fought a long hard war with Iraq and I doubt if they ever have them fly back after the war stopped. It would have been a gorgeous sight to see dozens of AIM-54’s from the skies shrieking in their goals at Mach 4 because they attempted to escape to Iran.

This plane will dominate the airspace of any enemy. Its full capabilities continue to be somewhat classified, but it’s a really revolutionary fighter for the 21st Century. I’ve not seen it fly, but I’ll attend the open house at Edwards AFB this weekend and see the aerial flight demo of this F/A-22. The Tomcat supplied the United States Navy with a proud history. I am convinced the F/A-22 will do the same for the USAF in another 30.

To summarize, I did not write this guide to stir any animosity between the USAF and USN fighter community. I have the utmost respect for those women and men who serve our country, particularly in the tricky war we are faced with today. God bless them and may they all come home safely when their tours of duty have been finished.

345th Bomb Group

Aircraft, B25, Vintage, War, Aviation

I’ve always viewed my dad as my hero for many reasons. I respect his devotion to his loved ones, his professional career in education, as my own personal role model and for his combat record during World War II. I haven’t met another man with more integrity with his spoken word. During my youth he instilled a sense of responsibility and patriotism in his seven children.

Whenever someone would ask my dad what he did during the war, he would tell them. But he never seemed to live on it. What he did was an important part of his life, but it was just 1 portion. I did not start to appreciate his battle record until I arrived in the Philippine Islands in 1978 onboard the Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. During one port visit, I was able to go to my brother who was stationed at Clark Air Force Base that was a really short drive from my port of call, Subic Bay.

My brother and I talked about what it must have been like for our Dad throughout the war. I didn’t know it at the time, but he flew from an air field near Subic Bay. He flew combat missions as a B-25 radio / gunner against Japanese targets in the Philippines, Formosa as well as French Indochina.

Up to now, I’ve only been able to find two books that correctly describe in sharp detail exactly what the 345th Bomb Group did in the South Pacific. 1 book was written by one of the combat pilots, Peppy Blount. My wife managed to discover this publication on eBay and it was my favorite Christmas gift. I tried to find the publication,”We Band of Brothers”, but without success, but she managed to locate it and I’ve since lent it to my Dad. Mr. Hickey spent many years of detailed research and the book is really outstanding.

I met one of my Dad’s combat friends who served with him. The thing that stunned me is how small my Dad was on what he experienced. Their B-25 bombers flew low level strafing and skip bombing runs with the B-25 twin engine medium bomber. The aircraft had their bombardier compartment eliminated in the nose and it had been replaced by fixed .50 caliber machine guns. All their missions were flown in extreme low elevation. My Dad’s job was delegated as a B-25 radio operator / gunner. The bombs had delayed fuses so as to reduce damage to their aircraft. Some aircraft could come back with dents from bombs which bounced back hitting the underbody of the plane. Additionally, they can carry four 500lb bombs .

My Dad was grounded for a single mission and his team was shot down near Clark Air Force Base. His crew survived the crash, but they were not able to escape because of their injuries. The only crewmember to return alive was that the guy who replaced him for the assignment. The remainder were killed by Japanese troops who killed them immediately. After Dad finished his combat missions, he returned to the USA.

I’ve often wondered why the 345th Bomb Group had so little media coverage following the war. It was a really common practice for battle war correspondents to fly combat missions for documentary purposes. I honestly think that one of the reasons was because of the reduction of aircraft shot down as soon as the war correspondents flew together in battle. A total of eight war correspondents / photographers were murdered on combat flights.

In 26 months of battle, the 345th flew 58,562 combat hours 9120 attack sorties, dropped over 58,000 bombs with a total weight of 6340 heaps, and fired over 12.5 million rounds of ammunition. It was also awarded credit for ruining 260 Japanese airplanes on the ground and another 107 in aerial combat. Its components won Distinguished Unit Citations for four assignments and the Group was awarded the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. This listing cost the Air Apaches, 712 dead from all causes, including 580 murdered on flights, and 177 aircraft.

I took my parents to an air show at Langley Air Force Base several years back and they enjoyed the series. But when we passed an A-10 ground attack plane on static display, we couldn’t help notice how the A-10 and B-25 had a similar function in battle. They fly within gun range at low elevation to strafe enemy targets.

To summarize, I hope this report will provide you a small insight to the assignment that was assigned to the 345th Bomb Group, 5th Air Force during World War II. I hope you enjoyed this report. My parents do not have internet access, but I will print this out and send it through the mail. I am sure they’ll enjoy it. If you like the guide, please pass it along to your friends and have an excellent day!

Spy Mission gone Bad

Airplane, Preflight, Night, Runway

All of us recall the P-3 Orion Spy Mission over Chinese Waters and both Chinese Fighters intercepted it and you really crashed to the P-3 and the Chinese Pilot, sexy dog kind ejected and was lost at sea. The P-3 was seriously damaged but it’s a tough bird. Luckily the team destroyed most of the electronics on board and scuttled the aircraft before its escorted landing at a Chinese Military airfield.

This was what the papers reported and that’s what occurred although there are several conspiracy theories still flying around about different rumors made by the underground cults and late night call-ins on the Art Bell Radio Show. Of course I’ve heard all those stories about the air and just laugh. Why well because that isn’t the story I heard in Bar Harbor, WA Starbucks speaking to a AE-6 Pilots, who knew most of the P-3 Crew. All of them confirmed the news reports and that’s just what occurred in China daily.

Some have asked why the Capitan of the P-3 Aircraft didn’t go to 200 feet off the deck and slow it down to 140 knots and just fly away from the region. Scramble more aircraft outside? It’s not likely to happen. Nonetheless, the Chinese got a whole lot of butchered up gear and stolen gear and sabotaged gear? Well good for them, they could sell it at a garage sale I guess? Contemplate all this in 2006.